If Combustion Engines Have A Future, What Is It?

күнү жарыяланды 2021-ж., 20-янв.
Көрүүлөр 304 438

Comparing Future Combustion Technologies: HCCI vs PCCI vs RCCI
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Spark-ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI) engines have been around for a long time, and they each have their unique problems and challenges. If we want more efficient engines, with cleaner emissions, we're going to need improved technologies and methods. Low temperature combustion promises greater efficiency with better emissions. Recent examples include homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI), premixed charged compression ignition (PCCI), and reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI). How do these combustion techniques work, and how do they improve efficiency and emissions? Check out the video for all the details!
Related Videos:
How HCCI Works - kglove.info/sun/video/h464vKqXw8B5q5U.html
How Mazda's SPCCI Works - kglove.info/sun/video/sYa02tOqlLhvyZ0.html
How RCCI Works - kglove.info/sun/video/qHvTmMadsq6qy4c.html
Studies Referenced:
2018 Study - doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2018.07.047
2020 Study - doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2019.116436

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Engineering Explained
  • Kourosh Ghadamkheir

    Kourosh Ghadamkheir

    Күн мурун

    what are the fuels uses in HCCI engines?
    because it must ignite automatically, it should be highly reactive...
    so can it be concluded that ab HCCI is a Conventional Diesel engine that is port-injected and not Direct-injected?

  • HedgeHodge


    Күн мурун

    If only we didn’t have have climate alarmist pushing world governments to pass regulations that kill the combustion engine cars.

  • MDF 2 MDF 2

    MDF 2 MDF 2

    2 күн мурун

    RCCI........two fuel tanks required for Granny Doris to misfuel....

  • Éliphas Lévi

    Éliphas Lévi

    3 күн мурун

    It'd be interesting if they could use some kind of oxygen enriched fuel that would eliminate the need to use outside air in the combustion process. It has already been proven that higher O2 concentrations increase the efficiency of the DI diesel combustion process.

  • Billie Young

    Billie Young

    5 күн мурун

    biggest issue is they cost 40 percent less than electric vehicles...so,they arent going away ever.

  • Ichigo 15

    Ichigo 15

    5 күн мурун


  • Wes Treen

    Wes Treen

    6 күн мурун

    Good Vid Jason, .... So what about something SI, like the Eco-boost engines ?

  • Bruce


    7 күн мурун

    No old style gas engines here - 2 EVs - Tesla Model S & a Mini Electric. ----- No more climate damaging fossil fuel engines.

  • MrScrewU


    9 күн мурун

    I'm like number 13000 :D

  • Glasspack40


    9 күн мурун

    Currently, Porsche and other Manufacturers are creating Synthetic Fuels . For Internal Combustion Engines which, Combustion Engines will be around longer.

  • roggenbif


    11 күн мурун

    Just do a double nozzle filler and find a way to get out the left over fuel somewhere and than we maybe can get somewhere

  • Mohamed Abdinur

    Mohamed Abdinur

    11 күн мурун

    RCCI is the next best compromise. But I think the magic is already premixed fuels at the pump.
    The f1 turbo era of the 80s were running special blend of racing fuel that had toluene, benzene, diesel, and regular gas. I think it was the BMW team I read an article on where they said gas mileage increased. They were still spark driven but I think heat charging through a controlled heat exchange could prime the primary fuel injection just as it mixed with dense cool air. The secondary fuel is then added in the cylinder and is ready for sparkless ignition via compression.
    But the problem is cold starts... not sure how can that be done reliably before the primary intake fuel injector is heat primed... maybe special heat plugged injectors?

  • Angel Arch

    Angel Arch

    13 күн мурун

    For the future of fuel combustion engines... why not just burn gasoline to create electricity in a small efficient turbine? No pistons and complex timing required.

  • Edgar Nanne

    Edgar Nanne

    13 күн мурун

    Jason, great video as always. Would love you to explain 6-stroke engines. Hydrocarbon-steam hybrids and their limitations.

  • Cameron James

    Cameron James

    14 күн мурун

    I’d love to see combustion engines around as long; they’re just more fun to work on and drive

  • Marian Chambers

    Marian Chambers

    15 күн мурун

    The deserted eight undoubtedly deserve because indonesia multivariately match via a inconclusive spaghetti. cooing, drab letter

  • sleepwalkerbg1


    15 күн мурун

    Simple , future of ICE (Internal combustion engine) is working in stationary condition , on sweet spot of power/torque while turning high-efficiency alternator for charging EV's :)Just like diesel locomotive.. Of course , that will also be thing of the past when we learn to harvest energy of the sun efficiently !

  • Keith Wollenberg

    Keith Wollenberg

    16 күн мурун

    Just so the manufacturers know, I would enthusicastically embrace buying two different fuels to reap the benefits of an RCCI engine.

  • Aaron Schwarz

    Aaron Schwarz

    17 күн мурун

    ICE going to be a range extender in future plug in hybrid electric vehicles & range extended electric vehicles //

  • wwlb


    18 күн мурун

    Automobile engines do not seem to have future for now. Recently, Audi said they will no longer develop new IC engines, due to Eurocomission pushing on Euro-7 but rather try to improve existing ones - and soon we will see many of this.
    However, internal combustion engines have future in airplanes - to the point where we can call it a second birth.
    Search for Celera 500L - a future of civil aviation. Already flying 460mph (Some civil jets fly hardly more!).
    Also, ships. Huge diesels are not going anywhere.

  • Drunken Hamster

    Drunken Hamster

    19 күн мурун

    What about a PCCI with diesel?



    19 күн мурун

    I hate elon musk for tesla🤬🤬

  • Aman Panesar

    Aman Panesar

    20 күн мурун

    After all of this stuff about ICE engines
    Just listen to the last bit ,
    Sums it up very well .
    Buy a Tesla .
    And more torque also and that from zero rpm

  • Allen Loser

    Allen Loser

    20 күн мурун

    Organic contaminants and sulfur in fuel are the primary cause of soot. Eliminate contaminants to eliminate soot.
    Synthetic fuels made from CO2 and water have no contaminants.

  • Allen Loser

    Allen Loser

    20 күн мурун

    The reciprocating piston Internal Combustion Engine will continue to be used until it is displaced by another motive force which better meets consumers' needs.
    All of the engines discussed are reciprocating piston internal combustion engines.
    No External Combustion Engines or engines using rotary, not reciprocating, motion are discussed.

  • Blake Ivy

    Blake Ivy

    23 күн мурун

    Hardly an examination on the future of ICE.

  • Mark Estrada

    Mark Estrada

    23 күн мурун

    If you use Hemp oil, you lose the emissions.

  • Paulo Duarte

    Paulo Duarte

    26 күн мурун

    LPG and Biogas... ;)
    It's the future... for combustion engines... ;)

  • Luke Starkenburg

    Luke Starkenburg

    27 күн мурун

    Thanks for including the little bit about electric cars and their efficiency. Can you make a video more in depth about that?

  • bbogdanmircea


    27 күн мурун

    I just read somewhere that Audi stopped any research on combustion engines, so yeah ... they will switch to electric for the developed world and keep selling the actual technology to the rest of the world.

  • ShadowOps Airman1

    ShadowOps Airman1

    28 күн мурун

    Engines that work in cold and dont require expensive motors/batteries that fail in cold.

  • Albrecht Schall

    Albrecht Schall

    29 күн мурун

    Hi, wouldn’t it be fair when you compare efficiencies between combustion engines and electric engines that you take the total efficiency - on the electric side especially from generation to use?
    Kind regards from Germany
    Hui Buh

  • david Phillips

    david Phillips

    29 күн мурун

    RCCI is about a hundred years old and very easy to implement, diesel guys have been doing it just about since diesels were invented simply by fogging some propane into the intake manifold on their diesel engines.

  • n


    29 күн мурун

    My guess: ultra lean hcci turbocharged free-piston engines. Basically a high efficiency combustion-based eletric generator. Timing isn't as much of a issue there because of the constant load and you can take out the whole unit and put a battery there once it becomes more viable because those engines are small and made with modularity in mind (at least that's the Toyota's approach).

  • John Manno

    John Manno

    Ай мурун

    Excellent video! Very well and clearly explained! Bravo

  • Gael Gauth

    Gael Gauth

    Ай мурун

    I would put 2 fuels in my car.

  • Honest Commenter

    Honest Commenter

    Ай мурун

    Short answer, no they don't.

  • Steve Hill

    Steve Hill

    Ай мурун

    I have a thought/question which is, at the moment it is said that fuel cells (FC's) run on hydrogen or methane gas (with the use of catalysts), why can't hydrocarbon fuels be gasified (most hydrogen produced at the moment is from steam reforming natural gas and it is said this is a large industrial process, but in the past engines were made to run on TVO (tractor vaporising oil) where the fuel was heated (usually by the exhaust) to make it vaporise, I know it's not the same but it should be possible to gasify gasoline and/or diesel) and treated/catalysed for use in a fuel cell to power a vehicle. If it could be made to work wouldn't that have the advantages of each of the 3 main competing technologies (EV's, FC's, ICE) whilst at the same time managing to overcome the problems associated with each of the technologies (as I see it the problem with ICE is not the hydrocarbon fuel but the combustion process), so with the above in mind my answer to your question would be, the ICE is dead --- long live the hydrocarbon fuel cell.

  • Cakeskull


    Ай мурун

    Hydrogen/HHO supplemented diesel would fit into the RCCI category if I'm not mistaken?
    That combination seems to be gaining popularity for generators and even some haulage applications.

  • Stormie Wutzke

    Stormie Wutzke

    Ай мурун

    If you still read this I would be really interested in knowing if there are any studies about water injection.

  • D Red

    D Red

    Ай мурун

    Petroleum will never go away! Neither will combustion engines, at least not until they get rid of batteries! With batteries, an electric car is far worse for the environment, not to mention people really dont realize what is actually charging their car comes from the same energy, in one way or another, that fuels my car! You can thank Rockefeller for all the misinformation on natural oil!

  • Marcus Cook

    Marcus Cook

    Ай мурун

    If the Texas winter storm power demand spike is any indication, we still aren't close to fully electric cars taking over. Can you imagine the same inadequate power grid saddled with millions upon millions of massive fast chargers?

  • Ron Kirkpatrick Customs

    Ron Kirkpatrick Customs

    Ай мурун

    The oil industry runs the world.

  • edyartzi


    Ай мурун

    There’s actually a demand for that kind of engine in LPG conversion of diesel engines.
    The LPG is a high octane fuel that can be port injected.
    The engine needs to inject some amount of diesel to start the ignition.

  • Marco Scherillo

    Marco Scherillo

    Ай мурун

    parla troppo veloce

  • perf b

    perf b

    Ай мурун

    Combustion engines now seem like Rube Goldberg contraptions compared to electric motors. EV Horsepower to weight advantage, and efficiency due to not having to lose energy with reciprocating losses and friction losses. I always wondered how much energy is lost accelerating/decelerating the pistons vs engine friction losses, i.e. which is greater and what fraction of energy is lost?

  • Paradox


    Ай мурун

    if the electrical powered system is better than ICE and hydro carbon fuels - why do humans breath oxygen and exhale CO2? isn't it more efficient for us to throw lightning bolts like Zeus?

  • Paradox


    Ай мурун

    @Engineering Explained - you were touting electric cars being efficient than ICE, can you prove it?
    suppose we have 1 hectare of land and 1 year of time. we can either a) use it to grow crops and turn into ethanol to power an ICE car. or b) cover the land with solar panels to generate AC power, which then coverts to DC to charge an EV. finally, we compare the ICE car and the EV car, which car will drive a longer distance, based on that 1 hectare-land-year unit? in both cases, the original source of energy is sunlight. so this comparison fairly compares whether ICE or EV makes the most efficient use of sunlight. (difficult to compare when using hydro / nuclear)

  • Christopher


    Ай мурун

    achates power made some massive improvement's but seems they aren't working much in the civilian world. currently they are working on powerplants for military equipment. they had an F150 getting almost 40mpg with their 2 stroke engine

  • stau ffap

    stau ffap

    Ай мурун

    Wow, it's almost like you don't know anything about global warming and climate science. You do realise that we need to get to pretty much zero combustion of fossil fuels, do you?
    You can't talk about the future of combustion engines without mentioning man-made global warming and its implications. So your video misses the whole point. What you would have to discuss is what will a CO2 neutral energy grid look like and is there a place for combustion engines?
    This means that the more important thing is the fuel. It's almost all about discussing the fuel. So what options do we have?
    -Hydgrogen made form electrolysis of water (inefficient uses about 5 times more energy per distance compared to EV)
    -Liquid e-fuels, same problem in combination with an ICE, but even less efficient than hydrogen
    -Biofuels, here we often have EROI problems, the inefficient ICE in combination with the fuel makes it an energy sink
    There's likely no future for the internal combustion engine, except for very rich people and maybe in some exotic niches.
    Again the goal is CO2 neutrality and not just less CO2 - that's not enough. You don't seem to get that.

    • stau ffap

      stau ffap

      Ай мурун

      @S King Why? The average car owner drives just 29 miles per day. 95 percent of all trips are below 50 miles long. Every electric car can do that. I have a cheap electric car (the cheapest new car you can get) and in the summer i can easily get a 300km range. In the winter about 260km range. A Tesla has about a 500km range and you can do 1000km in 10 hours if you know what you're doing. The problem in most cases aren't electric cars, but that people don't know how to use them and what they can do. And often they don't even know how long their usual trips are. I recommend Bjorn Nyland's channel if you want to learn what an electric car can do. Also learn about the consumption for different speeds. This makes a huge difference in terms of range.

    • S King

      S King

      Ай мурун

      Biofuels may be a good measure toward carbon neutrality for ICE vehicles until battery tech catches up with consumer needs.

  • Георги Георгев

    Георги Георгев

    Ай мурун

    Here in Bulgaria we put a LPG sistem on a disel engine this is something like RCCI you put the LPG (or CNG)in the intake and the result is that you have a good increase of power and a little economy

  • Aaditya Pratap Singh

    Aaditya Pratap Singh

    Ай мурун

    Why can't gasoline/petrol be used in case of diesel in compression ignition engines, though? Is it because of knock and air-fuel mixture preignition-related issues, along with timing? Let's leave out the lubricating properties of diesel for the fuel pump, injectors and other parts that depend on the fuel itself for getting lubricated while running.

  • oliver24x


    Ай мурун

    We better do something, the earth warmed faster in 2020 than normal because of less particle pollution from planes, cars and more

    • S King

      S King

      Ай мурун

      @oliver24x - You are 100% correct. Additionally, aviation and shipping are two transportation sectors which won’t be adequately served by electric power for years to come. CO2-neutral fuels will be able to power these energy-hungry industries until an adequate AND cost-effective alternative is developed.

    • oliver24x


      Ай мурун

      @S King We could potentially fix this though by making CO2 neutral fuels with CO2. It requires energy but if the energy used for this process is CO2 neutral too, net CO2 pollution would be 0. I think this would be important for a long time, we ain't getting all gas cars of the road anytime soon. CO2 capture-to-liquid fuels is realistic and has been demonstrated to actually work, but as with other green alternatives it requires incentives.

    • S King

      S King

      Ай мурун

      @oliver24x - What I laughed about is that you said that “because of LESS [particle] pollution”, the earth warmed faster in 2020. Without further explanation, a rational inferral would be that “pollution from planes, cars and more” isn’t the cause of global warming ...

    • oliver24x


      Ай мурун

      @S King You don't believe in global warming or that the earth warmed faster? Either way you should probably do a little searching around.

    • S King

      S King

      Ай мурун

      LOLOLOL ...

  • D Wall

    D Wall

    Ай мурун

    I like the opposed piston design. How does it stack up against these options wrt emissions?

  • twowheeler1000


    Ай мурун

    Have you ever done a video on multiair tech? It's very interesting.

  • R Rdm

    R Rdm

    Ай мурун

    Dude, awesome information - however, please get out of the bathroom when doing the Audio! Put a towel over your head, and do a take, then listen to how much better it sounds - no slapback echo from dreaded head-in-toilet-bowl sounding audio. Thanks much

  • Joe Leonard

    Joe Leonard

    Ай мурун

    What about carbon-neutral fuel? I feel like this is the most promising by a mile.

    • 4nN3xi0Ng3r


      Ай мурун

      The problem there is the efficency. You use quite a lot of energy to produce the carbon-neutral fuel and burn it again with ~40% efficency.

  • Jerry Wielo

    Jerry Wielo

    Ай мурун

    diesel fuel has 30% more energy than regular gasoline/petrol!

  • 12v


    Ай мурун

    The future is wood gas engines. Prove me wrong.

  • Jindong Zhang

    Jindong Zhang

    Ай мурун

    Perfect explaining combustion engine work.

  • PBMS123


    Ай мурун

    What about particulate emissions filters? Diesel trucks in Australia and Europe are required to have particulate emissions filters, that use something like AdBlue to essentially act like a particulate cat convertor.

  • Tim Brown

    Tim Brown

    Ай мурун

    Porsche's efuel sounds interesting

  • Anthony Galata

    Anthony Galata

    Ай мурун

    Look into the Ducted Fuel injection (DFI) that is currently being developed to address the soot issue for diesel vehicles. It's projecting up to a 90% reduction in particulate emissions, leaving only the NOx to deal with. It's fairly promising from what I've read.

  • Bob Riemersma

    Bob Riemersma

    Ай мурун

    Electric cars make sense for urban anthills, less so most of the world. I suspect that only subsidies are driving this discussion and without them and the agenda behind them this would all go away. A far better solution might be non-plugin hybrids with smaller efficient gasoline engines, designed with far larger batteries than in the past and engineered to self-charge in place even when not rolling down the road. Users could pick the charging interval whenever they "turn off" the vehicle. Tap for 0, 15, 30, 60 minutes or until charged.

  • ignafiltro


    Ай мурун

    I'm pretty sure if Nissan's variable compression engine comes out, the technology could be used to extend the operating range of an HCCI engine.
    Also freevalve will completely change the game.

  • Football Engineer

    Football Engineer

    Ай мурун

    I think the world is meant to save fuel, not carbon dioxide emissions and when electric cars Spread gasoline and diesel will be a cheap than now and world continue with combustion engine and AC engine

  • Ayoze K

    Ayoze K

    Ай мурун

    you working in an oil rig while cleaning crude oil from beaches, fixed!

  • Donald Espeut

    Donald Espeut

    Ай мурун

    A complete waste of time. Will always be a Rube Goldberg contraption, prone to trouble and inefficiency. And boy, it will be very expensive to maintain. It had its time, now bury it!

  • TheCreeperkiller


    Ай мурун

    Can you do a video on gas turbines?

  • itachi ushia

    itachi ushia

    Ай мурун

    What about MWI (Micro Wave Ignition) ?

  • Mr Ed

    Mr Ed

    Ай мурун

    Don’t know what ever happened to the natural gas injection for Diesel engines it seemed to be catching on right before all of the new emissions standards started in 2007
    It was working as a dual fuel system only less complex it was basically injecting natural gas in the same way drag racers inject nos but was showing that it was helping diesels run extremely clean yes it would be a pain but is probably better than the DPF and DEF systems that are being used currently

  • Komrade BigTex sucks

    Komrade BigTex sucks

    Ай мурун

    general public people gonna put gas in the diesel and diesel in the gas

  • Robert Balejik

    Robert Balejik

    Ай мурун

    Realworld - freevalve and 2s opposed piston
    50%+ efficient, clean and indestructible/ durable

  • Ty Roberts

    Ty Roberts

    Ай мурун

    Whatever happened to opposed piston engines like Achates?

  • Ty Roberts

    Ty Roberts

    Ай мурун

    Could you do a segment on the old three on the tree transmission I grew up with. Yes, I’m old.

  • NumberLover


    Ай мурун

    How do these options compare to hydrogen engines? Especially in terms of efficiency and emissions

  • u3b93


    Ай мурун

    I am revisiting this video, throttle body bodies are being used to control NOx emissions nowadays by starving Oxygen from the combustion with Exhaust Gas Re-circulation as well. But why does DI (Direct Injection) produce so much soot in either Gasoline or Diesel? Is DI less efficient in the mixing of the fuel with air than Port Injection is? What causes soot formation in the combustion process?

  • Constantine Giotopoulos

    Constantine Giotopoulos

    Ай мурун

    So I understand that the future of IC engines is that they don't have a future, especially in an environment where their use is being heavily taxed when the alternative technology is heavily subsidized.

  • Phelan Wolf

    Phelan Wolf

    Ай мурун

    The future of combustion engines? Being generators, for instance as range extenders for electric vehicles. Then they don’t require being able to handle more load they can run at optimal rpm for generating electricity.

  • Cédric Barthe

    Cédric Barthe

    Ай мурун

    So, better to keep driving my Euro4 H6 3.0 NA with more CO2 but less NOX and others carcinogenic microparticles !

  • Chuck Niemann

    Chuck Niemann

    Ай мурун

    What type of Combustion engine has a longer longevity lifespan, a turbo or non-turbo?

  • Radwan Hayek

    Radwan Hayek

    Ай мурун

    Variable compression?

  • Bob Outélama

    Bob Outélama

    Ай мурун

    Future of combustion engines.
    Flat two engines, located under the trunk's floor, generating energy to power the batteries and the electric motors of the car.

  • colin wells

    colin wells

    Ай мурун

    To improve efficiency, how about electrically positively charging the head isolated from the block, and grounding pistons to produce a St Elmos fire type spark within the cylinder. enabling multi centred combustion?

  • Dosalt


    Ай мурун

    The term "IF" says it all

  • Daniel Blendea

    Daniel Blendea

    Ай мурун

    Isn't Mazda doing HCCI already? WIth Skyactive-X engine?

  • bcubed72


    Ай мурун

    4:36 "How do we fix the emission part of the problem?"
    With a cat. QED.
    Engineer for efficiency; clean with a cat. Good 'nuff.

  • WHJeffB


    Ай мурун

    Create incentives or grants to coerce large employers to install solar panels OVER employee parking lots. People with EV's drive to work in the AM, plug their car in to charge through the day. No need to charge at night, which will balance the load on the grid during early to mid evening hours. Solar panels don't develop as much energy on cloudy days, but cloudy days also mean lower energy consumption, due to less energy being used to cool homes and businesses, so the load on the grid in the evening, while higher, won't be as much of a factor.

  • H.G.D Amptmeijer

    H.G.D Amptmeijer

    2 ай мурун

    this wont be the end, were only half way there

  • Alex Landsberger

    Alex Landsberger

    2 ай мурун

    I don't think he understands how unstable gasoline is compared to diesel. gasoline will definitely ignite from compression way easier that Diesel

  • Chris Montes

    Chris Montes

    2 ай мурун

    I feel like I'm back in school😁

  • jose peixoto

    jose peixoto

    2 ай мурун

    The Australian fires and the California fires and the home Fireplaces are way worse than today's clean burning engines; time for the Greenpissers to stand aside, i am paying dearly for that bs already.



    2 ай мурун

    Hey you've been teaching about IC Engines for quite some time now, And now the Combustion Engines are going to take their last breathes. But How About Building a Combustion Engine in one of your videos, It'll be exciting to learn from you what goes into building an actual engine.

  • dekacster


    2 ай мурун

    the near future will be synthetic gasoline from renewable energy and pushing EV by step by step till the half of the decade. others are just hopes and propaganda.

  • rizzle razzleuno

    rizzle razzleuno

    2 ай мурун

    Ha ha......all this leads to is your last statement......electric motors are superior to internal combustion engines, but the supply of power for ICE (liquid fuel) is currently more practical that the power (batteries) for EVs. But there is still more room to improve the efficiency of ICE, only it is kinda like the attempts to improve tape based recording/playback systems. Just like the reel to reel, 8-track and cassette died, so too will the ICE reach the end of the road........not tomorrow, but eventually. Although I do wonder if the whiteboard will last until the 22nd century. 🙂🤔😏😮

  • E K

    E K

    2 ай мурун

    Fantastic channel, learned so much !

  • Halo


    2 ай мурун

    I just want the sound, performance and feeling I get from SI and CI engines

  • Bogdan Ionitza

    Bogdan Ionitza

    2 ай мурун

    with the RCCI how would you prevent gasoline from self-detonating at the kind of pressure needed for diesel to combust? It doesn't make sense, gasoline can only be compressed up to 10-11 bar, while diesel goes much higher than that. Perhaps swap the two? Premix with diesel and inject gasoline at the top of the stroke?

  • Will Taylor

    Will Taylor

    2 ай мурун

    Basic problem is more than two moving parts. Argument over. Oh yea, natural byproduct of ICE is toxic; i.e. carcinogenic, asphyxiation, poison. The list goes on.

  • L.J Ross

    L.J Ross

    2 ай мурун

    12 cylinders forever!